Calontir LoI dated 2008-07-19
Greetings to the Laurel Sovereign-of-Arms and the Laurel Staff,
As Saker Herald, I forward the following information and submissions for alternate Russian titles on this the 19th of July, 2008 being AS XLIII.
In Service,
Ines Alfon, Saker Herald
saker@calontir.info
‍=

‍=

I am Lady Sofya la Rus, and I have studied Russian culture in one way or another for the last 16 years, the last 10 of them in the context of the SCA. About the time I joined the SCA, the Russian Alternate Titles list was revised. The new list was a great improvement over the old one and I, as a newcomer to the SCA, had no cause to question it. However, as my studies have progressed, I have gradually grown dissatisfied with some aspects of the current list.Late last year, I was able to study the topic of period Russian titles and ranks in some depth using both primary and secondary sources, and I have prepared an update of the Russian Alternate Titles List accordingly. I ask that you consider presenting the enclosed proposal to the College of Arms for approval of use.
In preparing the current Russian Alternate Titles proposal, I have consulted:
Lady Predslava Vydrina (submitted the previous revision proposal, May 1997 LoAR)
HL Paul Wickenden of Thanet (deeply involved in the previous revision)
Master Mikhail Nikolaevich Kramolnikov, OL, OP (involved in previous revision)
Mistress Liudmila Vladimirova doch', OL
Master Modar Neznanich, OP
Master Mordak Timofei'evich Rostovskogo, OL
Mistress Tatjana Nikonovna Besprozvanyja, OL
In addition to the table with my proposed Alternate Titles List, please also find enclosed a brief discussion of the titles, a selected list of references and copies of the documentation.
Letter Comments:
Aryanhwy merch Catmael (Pelican) at 2008-07-19 06:57:23
Are these intended to replace or to supplement the current alternate titles for Russian?
Ines Alfon (Saker) at 2008-07-27 09:49:03
both replace and supplement. I added a table, such as I could, below.
Ines Alfon (Saker) at 2008-07-27 09:28:27
From Sofya la Rus: I have transliterated Russian words using the Library of Congress system to correspond to Paul Wickenden's Dictionary of Period Russian Names. However, when I directly quote someone else's transliteration, I have retained their spelling whatever transliteration system they used. "Boyar" is an English word, so when translating I use "boyar", but when transliterating, I use "boiarin."

SCA      Current Russian Alt   Revised Russian Alt   Addl SCA Titles   Sugg Russian Equivalents
King      Tsar          Velikii Kniaz      ---           ---
Queen     Tsaritsa        Velikaia Kniaginia   ---           ---
Prince     Tsarevich        Kniazhich        Territorial Prince   Kniaz
Princess    Tsarevna        Kniazhna        Territorial Princess  Kniaginia
Duke      Kniaz          same          ---           ---
Duchess    Kniaginia        same          ---           ---
Count     Kniaz          same          ---           ---
Countess    Kniaginia        same          ---           ---
Viscount    Kniaz          same          ---           ---
Viscountess  Kniaginia        same          ---           ---
Master     Master         same/Boiarin      ---           ---
Mistress    Master         Masteritsa/Boiarynia  ---           ---
Knight        Rytsar         Druzhinnik/ Druzhinnitsa
                     Boiarin/Boiarynia  ---           ---
Sir      ---           ---          "my lord"/"my lady"
                               /"good gentles"    Gospodin/Gospozha/Gospoda
Baron     Posadnik/Voevoda    same          Court Baron     Namestnik
Baroness    Posadnitsa/Voevoda   same/Voevodsha     Court Baroness    Namestnitsa
Lord      Pomestnik        Dvorianin       GoA level Lord      Dvorianin Bolshoi/Syn Boiarskii
Lady      Pomestnitsa       Dvorianka       GoA level Lady      Dvorianka Bolshaia/Doch' Boiarskaia
 
[[mailto:liana@ellipsis.cx|Aryanhwy merch Catmael (Pelican) ]]at 2008-07-27 12:12:13
Lady Sofya has given me permission to post a link to her complete documentation: [[http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/RATP/RAT-List-Revision.doc|http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/RATP/RAT-List-Revision.do c]].
[[mailto:ursula@math.washington.edu|Ursula Georges (Loyall) ]]at 2008-07-28 18:48:07
I'm asking a bunch of specific questions here, so I want to give explicit permission to forward them to Lady Sofya if necessary.

1: Baron - New Other
Namestnik
This would be for Court Baron, part of the official SCA rank scheme, but not addressed by current alternate titles lists.
Novgorod Primary Chronicle, 1215 [6723] "And Mstisalv [sic] Mstislavits... arrived at Novgorod on February 11, seized Yaroslav's lieutenant [namestnik], Knota Grigorevits, and put all the nobles [dvoryany] in chains..." [Krotov, Michell and Forbes]
Novgorod Primary Chronicle, 1420 [6928] "and they sent Kniaz Fedor Patrikeyevich, lieutenant [namest'nik] of the Veliki Kniaz..." [Krotov, Michell and Forbes]
The namestnik is a deputy or representative of the kniaz, much like a posadnik. The manestnik doesn't seem tied to a specific territory as a posadnik, but the sources found so far are vague on this point.

Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:04:48
Is <Namestnik> as used here a title or a rank? That is, would it be appropriate to refer to someone as <Namestnik Ivan> or <Ivan Namestnik>? Is <Namestnik> the best scholarly transliteration of the underlying word?

Do we want to make explicit distinctions between court and landed barons?

Response:
The word namest'nik is used more as a title than as a rank in period sources. For example: "And Mstislav Mstislavits... seized Yaroslav's lieutenant [namest'nik], Knota Grigorevits, and put all the nobles [dvoriany] in chains... " Novgorod Chronicle, year 1215 [6723]

I would say "namest'nik Ivan". The term "Ivan namest'nik" is a strange construction to my ear, however see below. So far, I have found few period examples of the title being used with a name. The closest is below (note that the title of the kniaz" is placed after his name also, an construction alien to modern Russian and somewhat unusual in period also):
"But there was in Smolen'sk, in the princely place of Fedorov An'drei Mikhailovich' kniaz', Artemii namestn'nik"..." from Certificate of Smolesnk Kniaz Feodor Rostislavich to Rizhan, year 1284. [Sreznevskii]

"Namest'nik" happens to be transliterated the same by all three of the major transliteration systems: Library of Congress (favored by historians), International Phonetic (favored by linguists), and Revised English (favored by journalists).

The standard SCA titles in Corpora (and Kingdom law in at least one kingdom) make a distinction between court and landed barons, so I thought I might as well make the attempt to address it also. http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/admin.html#APPENDIX_C


2: Baroness - New Other
Namesnitsa
Feminine form of Namestnik
Titles, indicating rank of Russians, in feminine end in -tsa: tsaritsa, polkovnitsa, sovetnitsa, postelnitsa, chernitsa. Exceptions: koroleva, kniaginia, voevodhsa, upravititel'sha, krest'ianka. [Lomononsov]
Correction (2008-Jul-27 09:07:10): This is supposed to be Namestnitsa
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:19:55
Do we have an example of this word used together with a name in our period?

Response:
I have not found any period examples of namest'nitsa, with or without a name. This is not surprising given the lack of documentation of women in period sources. Sreznevskii has 1.5 pages of period quotes with boiarin", but only 3 quotes with boiarynia. Since Sreznevskii has 1 page of period quotes with namest'nik", it's not surprising that he has no quotes with namest'nitsa. Although he comes close with the following: "But my namestnitsi Ugletskie and volosteli [governors] and..." which he lists as a variant of "Namest'nik".

The feminine form “namest'nitsa” is found in standard exhaustive Russian dictionaries such as Ushakova. I have not yet found it in period texts, but it follows a standard pattern of the feminization of ranks with the “-itsa” ending as in Lomonosov. Compare it with the current alternate titles pomest'nitsa, discussed below, and posad'nitsa, which is attested in period texts. [Ushakova & Lomonsov section 240, Novgorod chronicle]


3: Baroness - New Other
Voevodsha
This would be for a landed Baroness.
Voevodsha is the feminine form of Voevoda. As with Master, the lack of feminine form for Voedova on the current list is odd, since every other Russian title has a feminine equivalent. Dal's Russian Dictionary provides "voedvodka" and "voedvodsha" as feminine forms of voevoda. [Dal]
The term "voevodka" has been found in three period/near period texts, but all refer to men. (And, a casual survey of Wickenden's "Dictionary of Period Russian Names" shows that most of the names ending in -ka are masculine names in period. [Grusheb'skii; and Andreeva "1615 Order"; Andreeva "Solovetskii Chronicle"]
I have not found any good period usages of "voevodsha". It is the only feminine form of voevoda in Lomosov's 1755 Russian Grammar, Chapter 5 & sect; 240.
Translation - Titles, indicating rank of Russians, in feminine end in -tsa: tsaritsa, polkovnitsa, sovetnitsa, postelnitsa, chernitsa. Exceptions: koroleva, kniaginia, voevodhsa, upravititel'sha, krest'ianka. [Lomononsov]
The term "voevodhsa" is used several times in a Russian translation of the early 17th century diary of Marina Mnishek (daughter of a Polish voivod) who reigned very briefly as the wife of the False Dmitri (1606), but I suspect the original document was written in Polish, especially with its use of titles such as pan.
Translation:
"Day 18. Went out with the envoy from Krakov, an pan voevoda and pani voevodsha, his wife, with the tsaritsa, his daughter, remained at that time in Promika." December. Diary of Marine Mnishek c 1605.
""Voevodina" is a feminine patronymic form of voevoda, as in Nastas'ia Fedorova zhena Voevodina, a late 16th century name. I have not found it used anywhere as a title of rank so I cannot recommend it for the Alternate Titles List" [Wickenden]


4: Crown Prince - New Other
Kniazich
Literally "son of the kniaz' ". This provides a useful distinction from the title of kniaz used for royal peers.
Royal Primary Chronicle, Year 882 [6390] - "He thus came to the foot of the hill... representing himself as a stranger on his way to Greece on an errand for Oleg and for Igor, the prince's son [kniazich Igor]..."
Correction (2008-Jul-27 09:07:00): I believe this is supposed to be Kniazhich
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:22:42
Was the current title, <Tsarevich>, in use by the end of our period? Do we have enough information to release it?

(These discussions are generally easier to follow if releasing the old title and adding the new title are 2 separate actions, but since this letter does not explicitly incorporate the release notices I'm asking my question here.)

Response:
The current title, Tsarevich, was in use by the end of period for Russians. Prior to that time it was exclusively used to refer to the offspring of the Byzantine emperors and the Mongol khan. I think it would be nice to keep "Tsarevich" as a protected title with the caveat that it is only appropriate for late period personas.

I do not yet have any period examples of tsarevich' used with a given name.

As for period examples of kniazhich' used with a given name, there are a few in Sreznevskii along the lines of: "Then was injured kniazhits' Vasilii M'stislavich'." And, of course, the quote above.


5: Crown Princess - New Other
Kniazhna
This provides a useful distinction from the title of kniaginia used for royal peers.
In 1573, Livland king Magnus married the tsar's niece, daughter of kniaz Vladimir Andreevich, and the wedding description says, "and the princess [kniazhna] was to be betrothed and to be married by the Dmitrovksij priest..." [Solov'ev Vol 7 Ch 1 Quote 1]
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:23:13
Was the current title, <Tsarevna>, in use by the end of our period? Do we have enough information to release it?

(These discussions are generally easier to follow if releasing the old title and adding the new title are 2 separate actions, but since this letter does not explicitly incorporate the release notices I'm asking my question here.)

Response:
The current title, tsarev'na, was in use by the end of period for Russians. Prior to that time it was exclusively used to refer to the offspring of the Byzantine emperors and the Mongol khan. I think its a good idea to keep "Tsarevna" as a protected title with the caveat that it is only appropriate for late period personas.

I do not yet have any period examples of tsarev'na or kniazh'na used as a title with a given name.


6: Dame - New Other
Druzhinnitsa
"Druzhina" is a collective term, however. The individual form is "druzhinnik," although it has only been found once so far in period texts. The feminine form is "druzhinnitsa" (although this term is even more rare in period texts than the masculine form). [Ozhegov]
Titles, indicating rank of Russians, in feminine end in -tsa: tsaritsa, polkovnitsa, sovetnitsa, postelnitsa, chernitsa. Exceptions: koroleva, kniaginia, voevodhsa, upravititel'sha, krest'ianka. [Lomononsov]
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 18:42:17
If <druzhinnitsa> is less common in our period than the masculine form, does that mean it was used less than once (i.e. not at all), or do we actually have more examples of this word in the feminine singular than in the masculine singular, or do we only have examples of the feminine plural?

Response:
It means that I have not found the feminine form in period texts at all, singular or plural. This is not surprising given the paucity of documentation of women in period texts. As noted above, the feminine form is attested in Russian dictionaries and follows the standard pattern as discussed by Lomonosov and exemplified by pomest'nitsa and posad'nitsa.


7: Dame - New Other
Boiarynia
Feminine form of Boiarin. It is mentioned in the May 1997 LoAR Cover Letter (http://heraldry.sca.org/loar/1997/05/cvr.htm l) as a feminine form, suggested then to have been used for court baroness.
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:26:32
Do we have an example of this form used in our period?

Since the use of <Boiar> and its feminine equivalent has been debated for a long time in our Society, I'm not comfortable reserving it to the peerage without a more detailed discussion of other possible assignments.

Response:
As noted above, Sreznevski has 3 period quotes using boiarynia, ranging from the early 13th to 15th century.

One of the primary purposes of the research that led up to this current revision proposal was to clarify the debate about the proper place of the boiarstvo in the SCA. Please see my original revision proposal for a better presentation of my view of this debate (under the entries for "Knight" and "Lord/Lady") - http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/RATP/RAT-List-Revision.doc. And to see of "all" my notes on the subject please go to the following pages on my website: http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/titlesclasses.html and http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/titlesmilitary.html

I do not yet have an example of the title boiarynia used with a given name in period sources.


8: King - New Other
Velikii Kniaz
The title of tsar was not used by the Russian ruler until Ivan III (reigned 1462-1505), and it wasn't until his grandson, Ivan IV, was crowned "tsar" in 1547 that the title became an official part of the style of the Russian sovereign. [Mackenzie and Curran p 152; Michell and Forbes xxi; Solov'ev Vol 5 Ch 5 Quote 1]
From Rozn:
  • (1537) We great Sovereign [velikii Gosudar'] Ivan', by the grace of God Sovereign [Gosudar'] of all Rus and grand prince [velikii kniaz']...
  • (1545) We Great Sovereign [Velikii Gosudar'] Ivan', by the grace of God the one Sovereign [Gosudar'] of all Rus ...
  • We great sovereign Ivan', by the grace of God tsar and grand prince [velikii kniaz" (sic)] of all Rus... [Rozn]

The title "velikii kniaz" was used as the primary title of the Russian sovereign for the majority of the SCA period. [Michell and Forbes viii,xx]
Russian Primary Chronicle, year (6420)

"We from the Russian people... [names of ambassadors omitted] sent from Oleg, Russian grand prince [velikii kniaz] ... "

The title "velikii kniaz" continued to be used prominently by the Russian sovereign even after the adoption of the title "tsar". For example, in 1604, Boris Godunov styled himself: "By the grace of God Great Sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince [Velikii Kniaz] Boris Fedorovich of all Russia Autocrat..." [Rozn]
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:09:26
What is the difference between <Velikii Kniaz> and <Velikii Kniaz'> in the documentation?
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:18:38
Based on this documentation, <Tsar> was available at the end of our period, so I believe that we should retain & continue to protect <Tsar>, as well as adding the new title.

Response:
To quote Paul Goldschmidt (aka Paul Wickenden of Thanet) in the 3rd edition of his Dictionary of Period Russian Names: "The modern 'soft sign' and 'hard sign', letters that represent no sound of their own in modern Russian but affect the preceding consonant, had a very different value in medieval Russian. Soft signs are represented by <'> in this Dictionary (hard signs were omitted because of the nasty modern fashion of doing so and the reliance of this work on several such modern references)." In period Russian, words such as master, and pomestnik end in a hard sign, represented as <">. Kniaz, tsar and rytser end in soft signs <'>. But as noted in the Dictionary of Period Russian Names, the <"> is often omitted by modern scholars. (As is the terminal <'>, apparently.)

In one of the above quotes, I kept the letter-for-letter transliteration including the <'>, but in the other, the title was in genetive case [velikago kniazia] which I converted to nominative case for clarity, forgetting about the terminal <'> in the process. In the proposed title I omitted it in order to conform to the previously accepted spelling of kniaz in the Alternate Titles List. If we wish to conform precisely to a letter-for-letter transliteration of period Russian spelling of the titles, we will need to modify nearly all of the titles to add the proper <'> and <">. It will be ugly, but accurate, and yet not really period. A period Russian would leave the titles in the original Cyrillic alphabet, and a period English-speaker would not have bothered with <'> and <">. See Paul Wickenden of Thanet's review of the transliteration scheme of Giles Fletcher. http://www.goldschp.net/archive/fletcher.html At any rate, I have put the <'> and <"> forms of all the titles, current and proposed, in a new table below.

I would agree to continuing to protect the title "Tsar" (or Tsar', or Tsesar", or Tsesar', or Ts'sar' - alternate period spellings documented by Sreznevskii), with the caveat that only late period Russian personas should actually use it.

There are many period examples of the title <velikii kniaz'> used with given names. "So I kniaz' velikii Gavril"..." and "We velikii knz' Vitovt" give..." etc. (Note, that <knz'> is a contraction of kniaz'.) [Sreznevskii]

9: Knight - New Other
Druzhinnik
The current form "rytser" suffers the same problem as the use of "korol" did for king i.e. it is apparently only used for foreigners. ("Korol" was deleted as an alternate title in the previous revision.) So far, only one instance of rytser was found in a period text, in a 1388 grant certificate listed by Sreznevskii. [Sreznevskii Vol 3 pp 211-2].
Far more common than "rytser" is the term "druzhina" - in fact, it is ubiquitous in the period texts, appearing dozens and dozens of times. [Sreznevskii Vol 1 pp 729-31]. This is a collective term for the elite, mounted core of the medieval Russian military sworn to serve a prince or great lord. Kovalevsky explicitly calls the "drougina" the "knightly class" of medieval Russia in a lecture to a British audience. [Kovalevsky]
In peace time, the members of the druzhina served their lord as administrators, diplomats and household staff, which is why "druzhina" is often translated as "retinue". (And this is why Laurels and Pelicans could also be considered members of the druzhina). [Kovalevsky, Kubijovyc, Riha]
"Druzhina" is a collective term, however. The individual form is "druzhinnik," although it has only been found once so far in period texts. The feminine form is "druzhinnitsa" (although this term is even more rare in period texts than the masculine form). [Ozhegov]
Russian Primary Chronicle Year 945 [6453] - In this year, Igor's retinue [druzhina] said to him, "The servants [otroki] of Sveinald are adorned with weapons and fine rainment, but we are naked... He dismissed his retainers [druzhina] on their journey homeward, but ... returned on his tracks with a few of his followers [druzhini] ... and the Derevlians came forth ... and slew Igor and his company [druzhinniki], for the number of the latter was few ... The Derevlians inquired of Olga where the retinue [druzhina] was which they had sent to meet her. She replied that they were following with her husband's bodyguard [druzhina]." [Russian Chronicle, Riha]
1445 [6953], Novgorod Primary Chronicle - "And Knyaz Ivan Ondereyevich and Knyaz Vasili Yaroslavich escaped wounded, with a small following [druzhine]." [Krotov "Novgorod Chronicle", Michell and Forbes]
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 18:43:54
Was this term used in combination with a given name in period? Or is it a collective term used by people who might have been addressed as something else (perhaps <boiar>??) in the singular?

Response:
You caught me. Indeed, by far the most common term for members of the druzhinna in period texts is boiarin. Since I've only found the individual term once in a period source, see above, I obviously have never found it combined with a given name. I put it on the list because I was concerned that some members of the chivalry might want to be able to choose a slightly more militaristic title to distinguish them from the other Peerage orders. To read my full (rough) notes struggling with this issue please see: http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/titlesmilitary.html

I have found only one period example of the title <rytser> and it happens to be used with a given name. "And before that were these luminaries: kniaz' Fedor", voevoda Lutskii being at that time, Zhimont" rytser'..." [Sreznevskii] Zhimont looks suspiciously like a Lithuanian name, and is not found in the Dictionary of Period Russian Names. Sreznevskii does not quote enough of the original text to provide more clarification. Sreznenskii also mentions the word rytor" as a synonym of rytsar'/rytser' and gives a single quote using the phrase <Bozhii rytore>, i.e. God's knights, under the year 1242 from the Novgorod Chronicle in the discussion of the famous "Battle of the Ice" with the Teutonic Knights (from a codex not used by Michell and Forbes in their English translation). I'm still trying to figure out if the quote is referring to the Russians or the Crusaders. http://www.krotov.info/acts/12/pvl/novg24.htm

Predslava Vydrina stated in the previous revision proposal that <rytser> and <ritor> were used to refer to Western European knights.


10: Knight - New Other
Boiarin
By far the most common term for members of the nobility in period Russian texts is boiare. Because of the dispute regarding which members/ranking of nobility should use this title, it has been omitted in the past from the alternate titles list.
Some period Russian Hierarchies may help clarify this debate:
From Statute of Prince Iaroslav (1019-54), Item 4 - penalties for throwing out a wife:
  • Great Boyars ("velikikh boiar") - [5] gold grivnas
  • Lesser Boyars ("menshikh boiar") - 1 gold grivna
  • Well-to-do people ("narochitykh" liudii) - 2 rubles
  • Common people (prostoi chiadi) - 12 [silver] grivnas
  • [Kaiser, Krotov "Statute"]

From the First Treaty of Novgorod (1264-5), regarding limits on princely power:
  • Kniaz
  • Kniaginia
  • Boiare
  • Dvoriane
  • [Kaiser, Andreeva "1264 Treaty"]

From Novgorod Chronicle (1398):
  • Posadnik (x2)
  • Boyars - boiare
  • "sons" of boyars - deti boiar'skyi
  • Men of substance - zhityii liudi
  • "sons" of merchants - kupechkyi deti
  • [Krotov "Novgorod Chronicle", Michell and Forbes]

Report of 1566 Sobor, attendees listed in first section:
  • Boyars (boiare)
  • Okol'nichie
  • Treasurers (kaznachi)
  • Printer / sealer (pechatnik)
  • Boyar Court Officer (chinovnik)
  • Dvoriane first class
  • Dvoriane and deti boiarskie second class
  • [Solov'ev Vol 7 Ch 1 Quote 2]

From the above, it is clear that throughout period, the boyars are an upper level of society with various inferior ranks between them and commoners. The above also show that the titles of the inferior ranks are a little difficult to pin down. It may be helpful to consider that the two Russian words for "the nobility" are "boiarstvo" and "dvorianstvo". [Katzner, Sreznevskij Vol 1 p 163]
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 18:53:22
Since this title has been disputed in the past, I believe we should discuss it now, rather than immediately restricting it to peers. Should we allow <Boiarin> to be used by those holding the title of Baron? What about <Lord>?

Response:
One of the primary purposes of the research that led up to this current revision proposal was to clarify the debate about the proper place of the boiarstvo in the SCA. I was not sure what to do with the title of Baron in this regard. In period Russia, posadniks and namestniks were clearly drawn from the boyar class, often even the princely class. So at first I assumed that Barons & Baronesses should be included in the boiarstvo. However, in my kingdom, Territorial Baronial rank only conveys a GoA, and Court Baronial rank only conveys an AoA. And yet, both are entitled to be "Your Excellency". So I thought it best to leave the question open to discussion.

I believe there is strong evidence that the boiarstvo was a higher level of nobility throughout our period, with a lower level of nobility corresponding to the junior druzhina aka dvorianstvo. The SCA system of ranks is remarkably similar to this arrangement if we place Peers in the boyarstvo, quite possibly including the Baronial ranks, and place Lords/Ladies in the dvorianstvo. Royal Peers would be in the kniazhestvo. Everyone else gets to be narochitye liudi (well-to-do people) or zhityi liudi (men of substance).

Please see my original revision proposal for a better presentation of my view of this debate (under the entries for "Knight" and "Lord/Lady") - http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/RATP/RAT-List-Revision.doc. To see of "all" my notes on the subject please go to the following pages on my website: http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/titlesclasses.html and http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/titlesmilitary.html

I have found the title boiarin used with a given name in a couple of period quotes. For example: "and to sit to his boyarin Vasil'yu Petrovich novosiltsov; and to order to sit treasurer and boyarin Taras Petrovich Novosiltsov; and granted him boyarstvo for the fact that he purchased from captivity his sovereign twice velikii kniaz Dmitri Konstentinovich, and third he ransomed kniaginia Marfa." - from a "placement certificate" of the late 14th century during the reign of Grand Prince Dmitri Kontantinovich.
http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/scrollsources.html


11: Lady - New Other
Dvorianka
(http://www.doukhobor.org/Terms-Nationality.ht m) "Index of Russian Nationality, Religion & Class Terms" compiled by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff notes Dvoryanka as a feminine form of Dvoryanin. Depending on transliteration schemes, the y/i is attested.
Correction (2008-Jul-27 09:07:09): It's not a y/i switch. It's a ya/ia switch. The 33rd letter of the Russian alphabet is transliterated as ya, ia, or ja depending on the transliteration system. http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/names.htm l All the major transliteration systems use "y" for the 29th letter of the alphabet (sounds like a seal barking). The letter "i" is used for the 9th letter of the alphabet (pronounced "ee").


12: Lord - New Other
Dvorianin
Currently the suggested alternate title for Lord is pomestnik.
Report of 1566 Sobor, attendees listed in first section:
  • Boyars (boiare)
  • Okol'nichie
  • Treasurers (kaznachi)
  • Printer / sealer (pechatnik)
  • Boyar Court Officer (chinovnik)
  • Dvoriane first class
  • Dvoriane and deti boiarskie second class
  • [Solov'ev Vol 7 Ch 1 Quote 2]

From the above, it is clear that throughout period, the boyars are an upper level of society with various inferior ranks between them and commoners. The above also show that the titles of the inferior ranks are a little difficult to pin down. It may be helpful to consider that the two Russian words for "the nobility" are "boiarstvo" and "dvorianstvo". [Katzner, Sreznevskij Vol 1 p 163]
The term "dvorianin" is variously translated as noble, gentleman, and courtier. It appears regularly in period texts and continues in usage until well out of period [Sreznevskij Vol 1 pp 646-7]
Birchmark letter from Staraia Russia, 1160-80: "please intimidate [?] the dvoriane..." [Birchmark S.R. 10]
1215 [6723] Novgorod Chronicle: "... put all the nobles [dvoriane] in chains ..." [Krotov "Novgorod Chronicle", Michell and Forbes]
In all situations where relative rank can be evaluated, dvorianin is clearly inferior to boiarin:
1218 [6726] Novgorod Chronicle: " ... all six Kniazes, each with his Boiars and courtiers [dvoriane]... These Kniazes of Ryazan met their end ... with their Druzhina..." [Krotov "Novgorod Chronicle", Michell and Forbes]
The First Treaty of Novgorod (1264-5): "Neither you, nor your princess [kniaginia], nor your boyars [boiare], nor your servitors [dvoriane] are to hold any villages throughout the Novgorod lands..." [Andreeva "1263 Treaty", Kaiser]
The 1218 Novgorod Chronicle entry makes it tempting to think that, if the boyars are equivalent to the senior druzhina, the dvoriane are equivalent to the junior druzhina. This interpretation is supported by secondary sources such as Solov'ev. [Solov'ev Vol 3 CH 1 and Vol 4 CH 3]
When this same two-fold division is applied to the period Russian hierarchies listed above, it appears that terms such as menshie boiare and deti boiarskie could be equivalent to dvoriane.
A pomestnik is a member of the gentry who has been given a temporary grant of land on condition of continued service to the state. These land grants were called pomestie. However, the pomestie system did not start to evolve until the 15th century, and the term pomestnik, or pomeshchik, does not appear in period texts until 1497 (the Sudebnik of 1497 is the only reference that Sreznevskii lists). Thus a pomestnik is a type of late period dvorianin. [Mackenzie and Curran p 144, Sreznevskij Vol 2 p 1175]
Because dvorianin is used throughout period for lesser nobility, corresponds to the term "dvorianstvo" and is simpler than terms such as menshii boiarin, it is proposed for the use of Lords below peerage rank instead of pomestnik because pomestnik is clearly a late-period term with limited representation in the texts and a fairly specialized meaning.
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 18:51:23
Do we have examples of this term used in combination with a given name?

Response:
I have miraculously found a couple of period examples of this term used in combination with a given name in Sreznevskii: "...in judgement dvorianini [plural] Matuto and Martynkom." [14th cent.] and "To Orlets dvorianin" a skin [?] of squirrel." [1397]

I have found no period examples of <pomestnik> used in combination with a given name yet.


13: Master - New Other
Boiarin
As Laurels and Pelicans serve as senior advisors to the Crown in the SCA, like the medieval Russian Duma, which was made up of senior members of the druzhina, the title boiarin is viable.
By far the most common term for members of the nobility in period Russian texts is boiare. Because of the dispute regarding which members/ranking of nobility should use this title, it has been omitted in the past from the alternate titles list.
Some period Russian Hierarchies may help clarify this debate:
From Statute of Prince Iaroslav (1019-54), Item 4 - penalties for throwing out a wife:
  • Great Boyars ("velikikh boiar") - [5] gold grivnas
  • Lesser Boyars ("menshikh boiar") - 1 gold grivna
  • Well-to-do people ("narochitykh" liudii) - 2 rubles
  • Common people (prostoi chiadi) - 12 [silver] grivnas
  • [Kaiser,Krotov "Statute"]

From the First Treaty of Novgorod (1264-5), regarding limits on princely power:
  • Kniaz
  • Kniaginia
  • Boiare
  • Dvoriane
  • [Kaiser, Andreeva "1264 Treaty"]

From Novgorod Chronicle (1398):
  • Posadnik (x2)
  • Boyars - boiare
  • "sons" of boyars - deti boiar'skyi
  • Men of substance - zhityii liudi
  • "sons" of merchants - kupechkyi deti
  • [Krotov "Novgorod CHronicle", Michell and Forbes]

Report of 1566 Sobor, attendees listed in first section:
  • Boyars (boiare)
  • Okol'nichie
  • Treasurers (kaznachi)
  • Printer / sealer (pechatnik)
  • Boyar Court Officer (chinovnik)
  • Dvoriane first class
  • Dvoriane and deti boiarskie second class
  • [Solov'ev Vol 7 Ch 1 Quote 2]

From the above, it is clear that throughout period, the boyars are an upper level of society with various inferior ranks between them and commoners. The above also show that the titles of the inferior ranks are a little difficult to pin down. It may be helpful to consider that the two Russian words for "the nobility" are "boiarstvo" and "dvorianstvo". [Katzner, Sreznevskij Vol 1 p 163]
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 18:52:04
Should this title be restricted to peers, or should we allow it to be used more broadly?

Response:
Good question. See comments under #10 Knight, above.


14: Mistress - New Other
Boiarynia
Feminine form of Boiarin. It is mentioned in the May 1997 LoAR Cover Letter (http://heraldry.sca.org/loar/1997/05/cvr.htm l) as a feminine form, suggested then to have been used for court baroness.
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 18:50:23
I think we need to discuss whether to reserve this title for members of the peerage orders or allow it to be used by a wider range of ranks, including baronesses and perhaps even Ladies.

Response:
See comments under Knight, Master, etc.


15: Mistress - New Other
Masteritsa
The term has been found twice in the Domostroi (in sections that date to the mid-1500s).
  • Chapter 51 - "...and the table leftovers of the mistress [gosudarynia] to the seamstresses [masteritsami] and embroiderers" [Pouncy and "Domostroi"]
  • Chapter 58 - "... for artisans [masterov] and for seamstresses [masteritsami] and for apprentices [vuchenikov] ..." [Pouncy and "Domostroi"]

Note that Pouncy translates both "master" and "masteritsa" with fairly low English terms. The Novgorod Primary Chronicle refers to "masters" with more respect. [Krotov "Novgorod Chronicle", Michell and Forbes 1268 and 1300]
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:14:15
Do we really want to reserve this word for members of the Peerage if it meant 'seamstress' in our period?
Ines Alfon (Saker) at 2008-07-28 11:27:18
Seamstress is/was a skilled science, showing someone of perseverance, technical skills, and artistry for aesthetics. Master / mistress in English is a relatively "low" term, simply denoting someone proficient in something. I find them both worthy of high honors, especially considering the how high an esteem we accord to those who hand sew/hand craft many things.
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:51:34
But should we block someone who is not a member of a peerage order from calling herself a seamstress?
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 11:50:50
Do we have examples of <Masteritsa> used as a title in combination with a given name?

Response:
<Masteritsa> does not merely mean "seamstress" in our period. The usual terms for "seamstress" in modern Russian are: shveia, beloshveika. Both derived from the Russian verb shvivat', to sew. I don't find either term in period sources in Sreznevskii, but shveia is attested in Pouncy - in the very same phrase quoted above: "...and the table leftovers of the mistress [gosudarynia] to the seamstresses [masteritsam] and embroiderers [shveiam]".

I'm not sure why Caroline Pouncy translated it the way she did. I have struggled with how to translate "masteritsa" in my own work. Without great care, simply using "mistress" can convey an unfortunate meaning to the uninitiated. And in the case of the Domostroi, Pouncy had already committed to using "mistress" to translate the Russian "gosudarynia" in the meaning of owner/lady/mistress of the house. One of my Russian dictionaries lists "worker in a sewing or hatmaking shop" as a definition of "masteritsa". However, the other definition in that dictionary (Ushakov) defines masteritsa as the feminine of master in the sense of a person who is skillful, competent and adroit in an activity. And my other dictionaries leave out the masteritsa = seamstress/hatmaker definition completely.
http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/titlesmisc.html

I do not have any period examples of "masteritsa" used as a title in combination with a given name.
I have a single period examples of "master" used as a title in combination with a given name from Sreznevskii: "In another place master" Kiril" himelf placed a church in his name, St. Kiril"." [Pskov chronicle 6881].


16: Queen - New Other
Velikaia Kniagina
Feminine form of the submitted "King".
Translation - Titles, indicating rank of Russians, in feminine end in -tsa: tsaritsa, polkovnitsa, sovetnitsa, postelnitsa, chernitsa. Exceptions: koroleva, kniaginia, voevodhsa, upravititel'sha, krest'ianka. [Lomononsov]

Comment:
There are several period examples of the use of this title with a given name in Sreznevskii.


17: Territorial Prince - New Other
Kniaz
This title is part of the official SCA ranking, but is not addressed in the current alternate titles list. Period usage indicates they should be called kniaz. The rulers of principalities such as Kiev, Chernigov, Galich, Ryazan, etc. were all called "kniaz" and were officially subordinate to the velikii kniaz.
Novgorod Chronicle, 1165 [6673] "... under Svyatoslav, Kniaz of Novgorod..." [Krotov "Novgorod Chronicle", Michell and Forbes]


18: Territorial Princess - New Other
Kniaginia
This title is part of the official SCA ranking, but is not addressed in the current alternate titles list. This is a feminine form of Kniaz.
Titles, indicating rank of Russians, in feminine end in -tsa: tsaritsa, polkovnitsa, sovetnitsa, postelnitsa, chernitsa. Exceptions: koroleva, kniaginia, voevodhsa, upravititel'sha, krest'ianka. [Lomononsov]
Other Comments:
Ursula Georges (Loyall) at 2008-07-28 18:45:29
Should we distinguish between territorial and non-territorial ranks explicitly? Was this feminine form used in our period?

Response:
The standard SCA titles in Corpora make a distinction between territorial and non-territorial princes/princesses, so I thought I might as well address it, since a nice period Russian solution presented itself. http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/admin.html#APPENDIX_C

There are multiple examples of this feminine form in period, including uses of the title with a given name. For example: "and to sit to his boyarin Vasil'yu Petrovich novosiltsov; and to order to sit treasurer and boyarin Taras Petrovich Novosiltsov; and granted him boyarstvo for the fact that he purchased from captivity his sovereign twice velikii kniaz Dmitri Konstentinovich, and third he ransomed kniaginia Marfa." - from a "placement certificate" of the late 14th century during the reign of Grand Prince Dmitri Kontantinovich.
http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/scrollsources.html
Titles with soft signs <'> and hard signs <"> indicated based primarily on spelling in Sreznevskii:
SCA Current Russian Alt Revised Russian Alt
King Tsar' Velikii Kniaz' --- ---
Queen Tsaritsa Velikaia Kniaginia --- ---
Prince Tsarevich' Kniazhich' Territorial Prince Kniaz'
Princess Tsarev'na Kniazhna Territorial Princess Kniaginia
Duke Kniaz' same --- ---
Duchess Kniaginia same --- ---
Count Kniaz' same --- ---
Countess Kniaginia same --- ---
Viscount Kniaz' same --- ---
Viscountess Kniaginia same --- ---
Master Master' same/Boiarin" --- ---
Mistress Master' Masteritsa/Boiarynia --- ---
Knight Rytsar' Druzhinnik/ Druzhinnitsa
Boiarin"/Boiarynia --- ---
Sir --- --- "my lord"/"my lady"
/"good gentles" Gospodin"/Gospozha/Gospoda
Baron Posad'nik"/Voevoda same Court Baron Namest'nik"
Baroness Posad'nitsa/Voevoda same/Voevodsha Court Baroness Namest'nitsa
Lord Pomest'nik" Dvorianin" GoA level Lord Dvorianin" Bol'shoi/Syn" Boiar'skii
Lady Pomest'nitsa Dvorianka GoA level Lady Dvorianka Bol'shaia/Doch' Boiar'skaia
Title
Documented in period source?
Documented with given name?
Tsar'
yes
yes
Tsaritsa
yes
none in Sreznevskii
Velikii Kniaz'
yes
yes
Velikaia Kniaginia
yes
yes
Tsarevich'
yes
none in Sreznevskii
Tsarev'na
yes
none in Sreznevskii
Kniazhich'
yes
yes
Kniazhna
yes
none in Sreznevskii
Kniaz'
yes
yes
Kniaginia
yes
yes
Master'
yes
yes
Masteritsa
yes
no
Boiarin"
yes
yes
Boiarynia
yes
no
Druzhinnik
yes
no
Druzhinnitsa
no
no
Posad'nik"
yes
yes
Posad'nitsa
yes
no
Voevoda
yes
maybe in Sreznevskii
Voevodsha
no
only in Diary of Maria Mnishek
Namest'nik"
yes
maybe
Namest'nitsa
no
no
Pomest'nik"
yes
no
Pomest'nitsa
no
no
Dvorianin"
yes
yes
Dvorianka
no
no

My thanks to the Laurel Sovereign of Arms, the Laurel Staff and the SCA College of Arms for their consideration in this matter.
At your service,
Lady Sofya la Rus
/privacy removed/

‍=

= I include my thanks to the College of Arms and to Lady Sofya for the incredible amount of research she has done.
Dona Ines Alfon
Saker Herald